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Plasticité cérébrale : régénération ? réparation ? réorganisation ? ou compensation ? Que savons-nous aujourd’hui ?

Abstract : Following brain injury, the nerve tissue has only a limited ability to modify, renew, and repair itself. Unlike many other organs, the human nervous system does not produce large amounts of new neurons, but a certain degree of adaptation of the nervous system is possible. The modest recovery potential, if any, observed after brain injury is attributed to the “reorganization” of functions, using the remaining undamaged circuits rather than repairing the injured tissue. There are 3 types of cell adjustment after injury. The first, and the most effective, is the functional reorganization of neurons and circuits that have survived during and following brain damage, where a regrowth of axons that restore the synapses is observed. The second, a much more limited type of repair is local gemination, or the extension of axons and dendrites at site of the traumatic lesion. The main obstacles to this gemination are glial scarring and death of neurons damaged by trophic bypass, stress, or cytokines released during the inflammatory period. The third is (re)generation. Neurogenesis of this sort in adults rarely occurs and its mechanisms are highly controversial.
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Submitted on : Thursday, September 2, 2021 - 3:42:40 PM
Last modification on : Saturday, September 4, 2021 - 3:26:08 AM

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I. Npochinto Moumeni. Plasticité cérébrale : régénération ? réparation ? réorganisation ? ou compensation ? Que savons-nous aujourd’hui ?. NPG: Neurologie - Psychiatrie - Gériatrie, Elsevier, 2021, 21 (124), pp.213-226. ⟨10.1016/j.npg.2020.11.002⟩. ⟨hal-03332285⟩

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