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Phase II Open Label Study of Anakinra in Intravenous Immunoglobulin–Resistant Kawasaki Disease

Abstract : Objective: Anakinra has been shown to be successful in preventing and treating cardiovascular lesions both in experimental murine models of Kawasaki disease (KD) and in several studies on intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)- and steroid-resistant patients with KD. This study was undertaken to determine the safety of blocking interleukin-1 in patients with IVIG-resistant KD. Methods: Sixteen patients were included in the present study. Patients with KD who were not responsive to 1 or more courses of 2 mg/kg of IVIG received anakinra by subcutaneous daily injections. Starting doses were 2 mg/kg of IVIG (4 mg/kg in patients who were age <8 months and who weighed ≥5 kilograms), and the dose was increased up to 6 mg/kg every 24 hours if the patient's body temperature remained >38°C, indicative of a fever. Treatment duration was 14 days. The last visit was on day 45. Primary outcome was abatement of fever. Secondary measures included disease activity, coronary artery Z score, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Results: Seventy-five percent of patients in the intention-to-treat group and 87.5% in the per-protocol group became afebrile within 48 hours of the last escalation dose of anakinra. Reduction of disease activity by 50% was indicated on 93.3% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 68.1-99.8%) of physician evaluations and on 100% (95% CI 73.5-100%) of parent evaluations. CRP values normalized by day 30. At the initial screening, 12 of 16 patients had a maximum coronary artery Z score of >2, and 10 of 16 patients had a maximum Z score of >2.5. At day 45, 5 of 10 patients (50% [95% CI 18.7-81.3%]) and 6 of 12 patients (50% [95% CI 21.1-78.9%]) had achieved coronary artery Z scores of <2.5 and <2, respectively. Five serious adverse events were observed in 3 patients, but no serious infections or deaths occurred. Conclusion: Anakinra was well tolerated in the study patients and may have some efficacy in reducing fever, markers of systemic inflammation, and coronary artery dilatation in individuals with IVIG-refractory KD.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, April 5, 2022 - 5:19:08 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, April 7, 2022 - 3:40:13 AM

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Isabelle Koné‐paut, Stéphanie Tellier, Alexandre Belot, Karine Brochard, Corinne Guitton, et al.. Phase II Open Label Study of Anakinra in Intravenous Immunoglobulin–Resistant Kawasaki Disease. Arthritis & rheumatology, Wiley, 2021, 73 (1), pp.151-161. ⟨10.1002/art.41481⟩. ⟨hal-03631549⟩

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